Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Jacobsen Greens King Mower - Add Power to Older Engines

Small engine vehicles have been revitalized and revamped over the last several years. Golf carts and hauling vehicles once innovative in the 1980s were still able to be improved upon in the areas of design, steering mechanism, vehicle weight and basic functionality. Mowers, however, have remained constant in their design and mechanics for quite some time. The single biggest area of improvement for golf course and large area mowers is in the engine. Recent small engine mechanics innovation has allowed designers to create more powerful, easier to maintain, and more efficient engines for these pieces of equipment. Though older model mowers may have quality engines that are still getting the job done, many landscapers or greens keepers may find that the engine does not provide the power or efficiency that a newer vehicle could. Buying a new mower in order to get the power of a modern small engine is not necessary if you consider repowering the vehicle instead.

What Is Repowering?
Repowering a small engine refers to installing a newer rebuilt engine into an existing vehicle in order to improve its performance and save on buying a brand new vehicle or motor. By repowering, a landscapers or golf course maintenance crew gets more than just swapping out an old engine for the same rebuilt model engine. Rather, a repower kit swaps out an old engine for a newer, better engine model built with the latest technology. Repowering results in a better small engine in a vehicle for the fraction of the price of buying a new one.

I Already Have A Quality Engine
If you are a smart consumer, you have already bought a large mower from a reputable brand that stands by its products. So, you may wonder why you would ever want to consider repowering. Consider the Jacobsen Greens King IV. Jacobsen has an incredible reputation for being a leading turf maintenance mowers and equipment manufacturer for over 100 years. The company's Greens King IV has been one of their best selling vehicles for over a quarter of a century. These mowers, however, will last longer and perform better if their engines are updated to newer models.

The need to innovate and improve performance is well understood by Jacobsen. The company's newer model Greens King IV has a 16 or 18 horse power Briggs & Stratton Vanguard gas engines. Older models have a 14 or 16 horse power Kohler engines. Improving the engine is important to the long-term life of the mower and to achieve better performance. This is why so many are choosing to repower their landscaping mowers - to give their well-maintained older models more power and extend their life.

Jacobsen Greens King IV is a popular landscaping mower and hauling vehicle manufacturer. As such, there are a variety of repower kits available. There are Briggs & Stratton Vanguard small engines or Kohler small engine rebuild kits available, depending on what engine is currently installed in the GV IV. Diesel models are also great candidates for repower kits. Those landscapers with other mowers brands, something other than a Jacobsen, can easily find a repower kit compatible with their model too.

Where Do I Find A Repower Kit?
Small engine repower or rebuild kits are available from several certified dealers online. When looking for a kit, make sure the one you purchase comes with a warranty that you would expect from the original factory dealer. They are available. This will give you piece of mind and assurance that the quality of your machine will remain intact. After all, repowering a small engine is a step toward improving the value of your mower and extending its life.

Why Musicians and Engineers Need Sound Engineering Knowledge (Part II)

We continue from with the second part of our discussion. Make sure you read the first part to ensure a thorough understanding of this all important subject matter.


With the acoustic age technology firmly in place to the extent that a thriving industry had been built around it for centuries came a breakthrough in electricity and electronics. Man was contemplating easier ways of doing
everything. The age of industry had set in and energy requirements were becoming more and more complicated. The music industry was no exception.

There was the need for a louder sound which had to be managed without resorting to the building of larger instruments and larger halls. Musicians were exploring new ideas in their songs which traditional acoustic instruments were not able to support. Concert halls were larger than usual and singers were still required to sing with the same clarity, strength and stability as they did in the smaller halls. Man's use of sheer human power was reaching its limit.

The electronic age brought with it the technology music needed to expand and grow. We were now looking at microphones, megaphones, radio, amplifiers, speakers, electric guitars, electric organs that needed no paddling and the like. This brought more flexibility and style.

With all this came a new global sound which has influenced the development of music today more ever. Man moved beyond the classical and baroque to more popular forms of music which could create a sound as large as the orchestra could but with electronic support.

This in turn gave birth to a globally standard recording industry as technology explored various options of producing sheet music in an audio form rather than paper form which needed a piano player, violinist, flutist or piper.

With this, those who previously did not have the chance to belong to the music industry could do so without having to spend a fortune buying equipment for a 46 piece orchestra and finding money to rent the plush, huge and large concert halls built for classical orchestra's. With a keyboard, electric guitar, an electric double-bass, a 3 piece drum-set, a few microphones, two speakers and an amplifier to match, all was set for performing good music.


We are now in what we refer to as the digital age, the age of precision. Information technology is driving everything. What we thought was a shrinking of larger gadgets and appliances from the acoustic age by the electronic age is seen as child's play when compared to what the digital age has brought with it.
Amplifiers that weighed so heavy that it took 2 or 3 people to carry in the electronic age, are the size of a CD case and are more powerful in output.

Today, it is possible to carry over 5000 samples of sounds for a keyboard in a small digital storage device which is shorter and smaller than your little finger. All you would do is plug it into the back of your keyboard and you can
play all those sounds at the touch of a button.

The digital age has brought more detail for music than we have ever known. The nature and character of a sound can be altered in micro units. This is because digital technology interprets sound signals as data in bits and bytes rather than in the normal electronic method of turning knobs fitted with predetermined values and units. What this means is that it is now possible to increase or decrease the values on a musical or sound engineering instrument in micro values which cannot be humanly precise or possible.

Digital technology in music today gives the musician the much needed space, support and opportunity to create any sound he desires the way he desires. In addition, the musician has more control over the sound he produces and how it is required to behave in a performance.


What is significant is that the basic principles of music and sound engineering used in the acoustic era are still in place without any significant change. It is the methods, the range of variety and opportunity that is different. Today you and I have the flexibility to do what we want to do with very little difficulty but with amazing results all because of digital technology.

In all this what has really changed and what has stayed the same? Music and the way it is processed have changed so much. Our songwriting and performance of music in my view is more predetermined than in the past because digital technology gives so much room to copy with ease what others have done already.

Having said these, it is important to note that the human factor which is crucial to originality is still in place. With the scope that digital technology offers the musician in the area of sound engineering, there is no need to just dream about a musical idea. It is now possible to bring it to life in a relatively quick, easy and cost efficient way with sound knowledge.

What Is Power Quality and Why Do I Need a Power Quality Analyzer?

The reliability and cost of any electrical system depends greatly on the quality of the power supplied to and consumed by the system. Poor power quality may result in improper function, overheating, accelerated wear and tear, falsely tripped circuit breakers and, in some cases, hazardous conditions. With the introduction of new electronic technologies over the last several decades, the world has placed new and more complex demands for clean and reliable power.

Measuring Power Quality typically involves calculating indicators of power demand, power consumption and power cleanliness. By measuring demand and consumption, consumers can identify cost centers in their electrical infrastructures as well as engineer the electrical infrastructure required to meet those demands. By measuring cleanliness, consumers are able to avoid improper function, overheating and a plethora of other consequences of unclean power.

What is power demand and how do we measure it?

Power demand is the amount of average electrical energy that is consumed over some period of time by a device, machine building, etc... Power Quality Analyzers, electronic instruments used to measure indicators of power quality, can average the electrical energy and display it in units of "kilowatts". It is important that electrical systems are supplied with enough power to meet peak periods of demand.

How does power consumption differ from power demand?

Power consumption, similar to demand, is the "sum" of electrical usage over time. Power demand reflects an instantaneous view of electrical usage, whereas, power consumption sums the electrical usage over the same period of time. Power Quality Analyzers measure consumption in units of watthours (Wh) or kilowatthours (kWh). Most calculations of the cost of power are based on consumption and measured by $ per kWh.

Once we know power consumption, we can calculate a useful metric called "Power Factor". Power Factor is a ratio of the actual power used by an electrical system to the apparent power delivered by the utility. In almost all cases, the actual power used will be less than the apparent power delivered because of heat dissipation, frictional loss, work performed and other release of energy by the electrical system.

We can use Power Factor to help us put a price tag on the amount of work the electrical system is performing, as well as help us install capacitors and other devices that store real energy to avoid being charged for excess apparent power. With a Power Quality Analyzer, you can calculate the "Reactive Compensation", the amount of capacitive value required to correct a low Power Factor.

Power cleanliness and the need to understand harmonics

Power cleanliness refers to the identifying and freeing power of "harmonics". The concept of harmonics is a bit more difficult to understand than demand and consumption. Harmonics are a result of non-linear loads that cause irregular spikes and dips in voltage and current on an electrical system.

The power provided by utility companies is delivered in the form of a constant voltage AC (Alternating Current) and takes the shape of a sine wave. Ohms law says the amount of current used by an electrical device depends on the load (inductance) of that device. If the load varies over time, so will the current. Harmonics appear when varying loads (non-linear) create short pulses of current that deform the supplied, sinusoidal current waveform, creating an arbitrary waveform.

You can think of an arbitrary wave as being made up of several fundamental waveforms. The easiest illustration of an arbitrary wave is to picture two people on opposite sides of a pool who each create a wave towards each other with a pool float. When the waves intersect in the middle, the result is a wave that is twice as tall. The resulting wave is made up of two fundamental waves.

This illustration can be used to explain that happens when harmonics occur due to non-linear loads. The current wave becomes deformed from a perfect sine wave and peaks and valleys create un-clean power. Harmonics can cause devices to overheat, electrical wire ratings to be reduced, motors to prematurely wear and circuit breakers to falsely trip.

Power Quality Analyzers have the ability to identify and analyze the fundamental harmonics that make up an arbitrary current wave. Measurements such as THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) can tell you the contribution of harmonic currents to the fundamental current required. Measured as a percentage, 10% would be a reason for concern. Another measurement called "Crest Factor" will indicate the level of peaking caused by harmonics. The Crest Factor is a ratio of the Peak Value / RMS Value, which in a perfect sine wave would be 1.414.

Choosing a Power Quality Analyzer

There are a number of different Power Quality Analyzer manufacturers such as Fluke, AEMC, Hioki and Extech. Some analyzers are designed to measure single phase systems while others are for three phase systems. Many PQAs integrate with PCs, have enhanced data logging capabilities and can produce professional reports typically requested for power quality applications. Power Quality Analyzers range in price from $1500 to $6500 with the more expensive products offering greater analysis functionality.

Advancing Wind Generation Efficiency thru Improved Technology and Re-Design

Energy is a serious topic for the Online Think Tank and of course we always work hard to consider all types of energy here. Alternative Energies such as wind generation have had a bit of good fortune lately with all the positive press and Bush Administration Alternative Energy Initiatives. Recently online think tanker Richard Walker noted that perhaps through some minor modification we might improve the energy generation of the modern day wind generator.

Thus Advancing Wind Generation efficiency through improved Technology and Re-Design. He stated;

"t would be practical to have like a piggyback windmill added on to the back opposite side of existing windmills. Either add another generator and blades right on top of the existing tower facing in the opposite direction so you wouldn't have to put up another tower, or just build another windmill right behind it. This way you can double the electricity output without taking up more land area."

Indeed we know that wind generators are often set is specific patterns in wind farms for this reason and many pivot 360 degrees in order to take advantage of the wind no matter what direction it faces. Richard Walker makes a good point on his windmill or wind generator idea. Indeed, I have had some thoughts.

My concept was to put six inch protruding cork-screw type pieces on the leading edge of the blade to cause a vortex flow increasing the efficiency and also send out a molecular aligning sound wave to thicken the air, meaning less wind, thicker air still you get better power.

Richard's concept for a piggy back generator aft a wind generator makes sense. You know a Cessna 337 Skymaster gets more thrust out of the rear engine due to the airflow and prop wash of the first. So I agree. Especially if they figured in the wave motion of the airflow at the optimums, so the rear piggy back propeller would move distance? I like that idea too very much. You could have many of them in a circle ring behind the generator.

Wind Generators make sense and renewable energy is in our future as well. I certainly hope this article is of interest and that is has propelled thought. The goal is simple; to help you in your quest to be the best in 2007. I thank you for reading my many articles on diverse subjects, which interest you.

Article Marketers and Authors Demand Higher Technology and New Tools

Marketing your website or blog with articles has become very popular because the ease of writing articles and submitting them to article directories. Many internet users have come to realize just how powerful this simple method of advertising can be. Writing and submitting articles not only bring traffic to your website or blog but they also can be used to build back-links to your website which helps increase your search engine rankings.

Along with popularity though comes new demands to accomplish many task as fast as possible and as easy as possible. With these new demands writers, authors, and article marketers expect to have a solution that is going to meet their needs. When a solution is needed then new technologies start to emerge to bring article marketing to a whole new level.

There are just a handful of article directories that are taking notice to these new demands. These article directories are are building new functions and features into their websites to accommodate not only current authors and writers, but to attract new writers and authors. Along with building new technologies some article directories are granting more exposure to the authors and writers by removing all ads from the article directory website.

Using technology many new tools are being used to make article marketing easier, more enjoyable, and more profitable. Tools such as content creation that will allow you to add html, images, video, flash, and more directly into your articles. Tools that allow the transformation of articles into pdf articles that could be used for short reports and even as full ebooks.

There are many other new tools that are being created that can help with the submission of articles and the changing of articles content. Some new tools even allow the ability to dripfeed your wordpress blog with articles putting your blog on auto-pilot. Imagine placing all your blogs on pure auto-pilot so you can have more time to do article marketing.

Many other tools exist and new tools are being created to cater to writers and authors. In the coming months there will be a wide range of brand new technology and unique tools that will advance the article marking industry even further than it has been before.

ArticleProductions blog contains many different types of unique articles on many different subject. Visit the blog today and get informed on some of the hottest topics and post your comments on our unique content.

Merits of Temporary Power, Temporary Power Distribution, and Portable Power Distribution Units

Temporary Power solutions are a boon for every sector of industry. As electricity plays a huge role in every business, electricity failure can cause heavy losses. For such situations they act as a great aid. It is a very reliable source of power and easily installed as well, though thorough professionals and skilled technicians are required for installation process. It must be properly grounded to avoid any mishaps. They are available with a full complement of load banks, fuel storage, transformers and switchgear. This suits the requirements of many customers who do not require buying one.

Temporary Power Distribution is a great way to convert one type of voltage to another. Its panels are inclusive of a power line feed, load center with breakers, transformer and outlets. Operators make use of portable substations to transfer power from a utility or generator set to voltages and outlets required to support multiple appliances. They can be customized as per necessity and can be tailor made to fit the bill of clients and customers. They are engineered and designed as per advanced technology and can sustain a harsh environment as well. It ensures safe distribution of temporary power in areas specified. It can be done indoors as well as outdoors.

Portable power distribution units are available for the convenience of users. Each unit is configured to user specifications and can be moved using crane or forklift. It can provide power for various applications. Be it construction site, mining, industrial sector or any other emergency region, they offer the most effective and convenient service to all its users. The units are specifically designed keeping in mind the convenience factor.

With world class technology and skilled professionals and technicians, Powko has grown manifolds and has reached its pinnacle with hard work and sincerity.

Powered Up and Cool, But Are You Protected?

We all are so reliant on technology that at times we take it for granted. We take for granted that it will always work when we need it, and that it is designed for resiliency and reliability. In many cases, it is not the design that gets in the way but rather outside factors that exacerbate the issue. One of the main ones, key to the operation of any advanced technology, is rooted in science over 100 years old and relatively unchanged since.

While most of us think that our old friend Ben Franklin discovered electricity with his famous kite flying, the real father of electrical power is English scientist William Gilbert. He extrapolated the writings of Thales of Miletus from around 600 BC of rubbing amber to produce a charge. Nearly 2200 years later, Gibson discussed the ability to take and conduct charges in many different substances and coined the term "electricity" from the Greek word for amber. Around the world, several different machines were built to create these charges leading to devices we still see today such as the Van De Graff generator which is used as a particle accelerator.

Electricity remained a curiosity until the Leyden jar was built in 1745 by Pieter van Musschenbroek which stored static electricity for a single, total discharge. I guess you could say it was the first battery! Many others sped the process of making power available and usable including Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta who created the forerunner of the modern battery, the voltaic pile and Michael Faraday who worked with magnets to produce a stable power generating field. Then we marveled at Thomas Edison with his DC generator and Joseph Swan who created the first incandescent light bulb. They were followed by Nikola Tesla who invented the first motor to create AC or alternating current which George Westinghouse saw immediately as the future of electric generation and bought the technology. Lastly, we cannot forget James Watt, Andre Ampere, and George Ohm whose contributions were so paramount that units of electric power were named after them!

Now that we've established where electricity came from, we bow to the knowledge that without it our modern 21st century world would stop dead in its tracks. With increased reliance on network computing, businesses large and small would be severely impacted if those systems were not available, so proper planning for power to those server rooms and data centers is beyond critical. Ironically, in many small to mid-sized organizations guaranteeing good clean power flow is almost never addressed.

To that end, proper planning and evaluation of the power consumption of IT equipment is as important as the setup and deployment of the gear itself. The first step is providing constant power in a clean, consistent wave. Without getting into the tenets of electrical engineering, keep in mind electrical power comes in "watts" which describes the flow of electricity. Electric power, also called current, travels along the wires in a wave.

This is important to the proper care of all devices that are fed by electricity. The continued shape of that wave is crucial to keeping devices running and also to their longer availability and lifecycle. What many people don't take into account is the fact that the power that comes to your door from the electric company is rarely this consistent. We are acutely aware of and worry about power outages due to the immediate nature of the threat. Power goes out, equipment shuts off. It's that simple. But it's significantly more than that.

The jarring effect of sudden power loss can and does wreak havoc with sensitive electronic gear especially complex systems like PCs, servers, and other processor-based equipment. Over time, this will lower the life expectancy of these systems. The problem is there is no way to measure just how much time you are losing. It's like avoiding your doctor's advice to stop eating fatty foods or smoking. Maybe you will continue on for years without a problem, or maybe you'll drop dead tomorrow from a heart attack.

Sudden power loss, or blackout, is not the only threat to your critical infrastructure. As I mentioned before, the flow of power is rarely consistent, and events such as brownouts and spikes are equally dangerous to equipment.Brownouts are defined as temporary reductions in power often due to over demand. When power is reduced during a brownout, lights may dim but servers and PC's cannot slow down so they strain to keep running at their previous levels. Spikes are simply a sudden event that sends a jolt of extra current through the power grid. Most often this occurs during a thunderstorm when a bolt of lightning hits a power line, but lightening doesn't have to be present for a spike to occur. Compare the sudden surge of power to a dam; if your local reservoir gets a sudden burst of water flow, it could break without the proper protections in place. The same is true for your sensitive network equipment.

We have seen what can be wrought as a result of inattention to power, so what do we do about it? Most commonly seen in the SMB marketplace are devices that mitigate the flow of electrical power called uninterrupted power supplies, or UPS. A UPS has a dual purpose, the most commonly considered is to keep power going to attached devices when a power outage hits. Yet a good UPS performs a significantly more important function, assuring a good clean power flow. When describing how events like spikes and blackouts can have serious impact on the performance and life of equipment, the consideration was there was no intermediate device between the power feed and the equipment. But a UPS, in addition to having battery back-up capability to keep power flowing, acts as a kind of filter to smooth out those fluctuations in the electric power wave. It's akin to having a flow restriction device in your shower. Regardless of the flow of water from the main, the flow of water to the shower head is delivered at a nice, constant rate.

There are also optional features in these UPS devices that can be extremely beneficial. One would be a monitoring module that can be added to the UPS structure. For example, modules can generate alerts when power is compromised, or the temperature in the room fluctuates out of the acceptable range. Alerts can be sent to email addresses and/or mobile devices, and can be recorded and logged on the network for later analysis. For small and mid-sized business that don't employ a dedicated IT person, some level of this capability is beneficial and allows alerts to be directly dealt with by the IT service provider.

UPS units are the minimal consideration in protection for a modern business network. In the small to mid-sized business with a simple server room that often also houses the company's phone system, assuring consistent and uninterrupted power is nearly all they will need. But neglecting another environmental factor could also be disastrous.

I have seen many of these "equipment rooms" as cramped closets or repurposed office spaces, and in some cases with little or no HVAC venting. Proper cooling of the space must be considered or disruption and failure will occur to these sensitive systems.

There are guidelines for the proper amount of air conditioning to keep these spaces in the recommended temperature range of between 68 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Suffice it to say if this is not adequately planned for, you may be investing in new gear much sooner. Heat can literally fry system boards and wiring or cause cooling fans to overextend and fail. Because there are so many factors to weigh, getting a consultation from a professional is highly recommended. Even if you think you are safe because you only have one server and a little firewall, if they are crammed in an old broom closet (don't laugh, I have seen this!), you are looking at the potential for a major failure.

As you ascend the ladder in server room size and the amount of equipment in it, there are more comprehensive solutions from a bevy of manufacturers such as American Power Conversion (APC), Liebert, Eaton and more. These range from rack-based solutions where the UPS and cooling are combined in a self-contained and enclosed unit, to huge blade server racks with rack-sized air handling. For the SMB space, APC has been the leader for years in solutions that fit both size and budget.

APC has several very thorough white papers including one titled "Cooling Strategies for IT Wiring Closets and Small Rooms," by Neil Rasmussen and Brian Standley that has a wealth of information. The decision on what is best for your unique needs often hinges on price and how many features can be obtained for a reasonable investment.

In my experience, it is rare to see a small or mid-sized organization that needed to go to the lengths of an enterprise organization in regard to a server room. Features like raised floors to hide all the cabling, hot and cold row design, and multiple sources of power and connectivity are generally not necessary or affordable for the SMB. That said some SMBs have opted for a cloud-based infrastructure which essentially rents out space in large datacenters. Of course this nearly renders the discussion of power and cooling moot. I say nearly because you still will have some gear on-site, like the phone system or a firewall, and it will have to be protected too.

This white paper is a simple overview of the power and cooling needs of small and mid-sized business today. As this is written, Pennsylvania is preparing to deal with the uncertainty of power costs when previously enacted rate "caps" are lifted on January 1, 2011. While shopping for the best deal is going to be a huge part of that, making sure the power is protected and stable must be considered too.

Proper planning and consultation can help mitigate the potential for crippling budget increases and equally crippling failures. Find a trusted partner that can help your overall IT strategy and allow them to manage your network so the network won't manage you! Whatever you do, leave the kite experiments to the experts. You'll find ways to make the power you need more affordable like virtualizing servers, replacing PCs with thin client workstations, or telecommuting.